Glial cells may take on big jobs in unexpected parts of the body

In recent decades, though, accumulating evidence has shown that glia are not just minor players that keep the show running. They actually play starring roles in many of the brain’s most important acts, such as remembering, learning and thinking of minyak daun cengkeh.

And the latest research points to a surprising new setting for the story of glia: outside the brain. Mysterious populations of glia reside in the heart, spleen, lungs and various other organs. But no one knows how they’ll fit into the plot. Early hints suggest the story is going to be riveting.

Already, tantalizing clues are rolling in about what these cells are doing. Glia appear to help regulate the heart’s beating, for instance. Glia in the spleen reside right between nerve cells and immune cells — a perfect spot to influence the connection between health and stress. Exactly what glia are up to in the lungs is unknown, but whatever it is seems important, early experiments suggest — mice with no lung glia die.

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“The fact that now there are these new glial cell populations being discovered in unique organs will hopefully trigger a lot of lightbulbs,” says Sarah Ackerman, a neurobiologist at Washington University in St. Louis. Like most researchers who study glia, Ackerman focuses on glia inside the brain.

She sees big potential in the handful of new studies that look at far-flung glia. “There’s going to be a revelation that across all of these organs, there are specialized glia that are supporting the function of the neurons there, but also overall organ health.”

MIT Engineers Look Toward All-Solid Lithium Batteries

Most batteries are made out of two strong, electrochemically dynamic layers called terminals, isolated by a polymer film injected with a fluid or gel electrolyte. Yet, ongoing exploration has investigated the chance of all-strong state batteries, where the fluid (and possibly combustible) electrolyte would be supplanted by a strong electrolyte, which could upgrade the batteries’ energy thickness and security.

The new discoveries were distributed for the current week in the diary Advanced Energy Materials, in a paper by Frank McGrogan and Tushar Swamy, both MIT graduate understudies; Krystyn Van Vliet, the Michael (1949) and Sonja Koerner Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; Yet-Ming Chiang, the Kyocera Professor of Materials Science and Engineering; and four others remembering an undergrad member for the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program controlled by MIT’s Center for Materials Science and Engineering and its Materials Processing Center.

Lithium-particle batteries have given a lightweight energy-stockpiling arrangement that has empowered a large number of the present super advanced gadgets, from cell phones to electric vehicles. However, subbing the regular fluid electrolyte with a strong electrolyte in such batteries could enjoy huge benefits. Such all-strong state lithium-particle batteries could give considerably more noteworthy energy stockpiling capacity, pound for pound, at the battery pack level. They may likewise practically dispose of the danger of small, fingerlike metallic projections considered dendrites that can develop through the electrolyte layer and lead to shortcircuits.

“Batteries with parts that are generally strong are alluring choices for execution and security, however a few difficulties remain,” Van Vliet says. In the lithium-particle batteries that rule the market today, lithium particles go through a fluid electrolyte to get from one terminal to the next while the battery is being charged, and afterward course through the other way as it is being utilized. These batteries are exceptionally proficient, however “the fluid electrolytes will generally be synthetically shaky, and can even be combustible,” she says. “So assuming the electrolyte was strong, it very well may be more secure, just as more modest and lighter.”

Yet, the central issue in regards to the utilization of such all-strong batteries is the thing that sorts of mechanical anxieties may happen inside the electrolyte material as the cathodes charge and release over and again. This cycling makes the terminals swell and agreement as the lithium particles pass all through their precious stone design. In a firm electrolyte, those dimensional changes can prompt high burdens. Assuming the electrolyte is likewise fragile, that steady changing of aspects can prompt breaks that quickly debase battery execution, and could even give channels to harming dendrites to frame, as they do in fluid electrolyte batteries. Yet, on the off chance that the material is impervious to break, those burdens could be obliged without fast breaking.

As of not long ago, however, the sulfide’s outrageous affectability to ordinary lab air has represented a test to estimating mechanical properties including its break sturdiness. To evade this issue, individuals from the examination group led the mechanical testing in a shower of mineral oil, shielding the example from any substance connections with air or dampness. Utilizing that procedure, they had the option to get nitty gritty estimations of the mechanical properties of the lithium-leading sulfide, which is viewed as a promising possibility for electrolytes in all-strong state batteries.

“There are many possibility for strong electrolytes out there,” McGrogan says. Different gatherings have concentrated on the mechanical properties of lithium-particle leading oxides, however there had been little work such a long ways on sulfides, despite the fact that those are particularly encouraging a direct result of their capacity to direct lithium particles effectively and rapidly.

Past analysts utilized acoustic estimation strategies, going sound waves through the material to test its mechanical conduct, yet that strategy doesn’t measure the protection from crack. However, the new review, which utilized a fine-tipped test to stick into the material and screen its reactions, gives a more complete image of the significant properties, including hardness, break durability, and Young’s modulus (a proportion of a material’s ability to extend reversibly under an applied pressure).

“Research bunches have estimated the flexible properties of the sulfide-based strong electrolytes, however not break properties,” Van Vliet says. The last option are significant for anticipating whether the material may break or break when utilized in a battery application. Hanya di tempat main judi secara online 24jam, situs judi online terpercaya di jamin pasti bayar dan bisa deposit menggunakan pulsa

The specialists found that the material has a blend of properties to some degree like senseless clay or salt water taffy: When exposed to pressure, it can twist effectively, yet at adequately high pressure it can break like a weak piece of glass.

By realizing those properties exhaustively, “you can work out how much pressure the material can endure before it breaks,” and plan battery frameworks in view of that data, Van Vliet says.

The material ends up being more fragile than would be great for battery use, yet as long as its properties are known and frameworks planned in like manner, it could in any case have potential for such uses, McGrogan says. “You need to plan around that information.”

“The cycle life of best in class Li-particle batteries is essentially restricted by the substance/electrochemical strength of the fluid electrolyte and how it interfaces with the anodes,” says Jeff Sakamoto, a teacher of mechanical designing at the University of Michigan, who was not engaged with this work. “Notwithstanding, in strong state batteries, mechanical corruption will probably administer strength or solidness. Subsequently, understanding the mechanical properties of strong state electrolytes is vital,” he says.

Sakamoto adds that “Lithium metal anodes show a huge expansion in limit contrasted with cutting edge graphite anodes. This could convert into around a 100% expansion in energy thickness contrasted with [conventional] Li-particle innovation.”

Learn More About Overtraining syndrome

There’s a thin line between working hard enough and working too hard. Pushing your body to reach new levels of fitness requires commitment, effort and a willingness to put yourself through intense, challenging workouts on a regular basis.

But more isn’t always better. Without the right balance of rest and recovery you could end up spiralling into a long-term fatigue condition called overtraining syndrome. The condition results in long-term reduced physical performance, and may be accompanied by other physiological and psychological symptoms (such as low mood or poor sleep) – though this isn’t always the case. It can take weeks, months and even years to recover from this condition.

Though mainly caused by excessive amounts of exercise, it can be accelerated by other life stress, such as working long hours, difficult social relationships, dieting and not getting enough sleep. Recent research has shown that up to 93% of athletes suffering from unexplained performance decline also report the presence of non-training stressors, so managing those stressors is important.

The frustrating thing about overtraining syndrome is that there’s no single measure or test that you can use to identify it. Research tells us that symptoms can vary wildly from one person to the next, meaning it can be a condition that’s hard to pinpoint. In fact, the only current, reliable method to assess if you have overtraining syndrome is to track how long it takes you to recover.

However, common symptoms include:

  • Long-term decrease in sports performance,
  • Less motivation to exercise,
  • Low mood,
  • Muscle soreness, aches and pain,
  • Loss of good quality sleep,
  • General tiredness or fatigue.

In reality, it’s very difficult to work hard enough to spiral into overtraining syndrome if you aren’t hitting the gym for hours each day. If you’ve ever felt tired or burned out but bounced back after a week or two, you probably weren’t overtraining, you probably just went a little too hard for a spell.

Tips to Avoid Overreaching

A similar condition known as overreaching is also characterised by performance decline, but recovery takes several days to weeks to recover from. And feeling drained for a day or two after a tough workout is just a sign of fatigue and nothing to worry about.

Overreaching is often seen as a less severe form of overtraining syndrome, but because the symptoms are often the exact, the two are often confused. In fact, when under-performing, most average gym goers suffer from fatigue for days to weeks rather than months, suggesting acute fatigue or overreaching is much more of a realistic risk to the general population.

Endurance athletes appear to be most at risk of developing overtraining syndrome, with previous research showing as many as 60% of high-level runners could experience overtraining syndrome in their career. Swimming and cycling have reported similar figures, but those that participate in strength-based sports, such as weightlifting, appear to be at lower risk of overtraining syndrome, with only one or two cases observed in the published literature. It’s not entirely certain why, but it may be because endurance sports are easier to participate in while fatigued.

Four long-distance runners running.
It’s less likely to affect the average exerciser. lzf/ Shutterstock
But even in high-level athletes who train for hours daily, only some of those will ever suffer from symptoms of overtraining syndrome. Hard and frequent training on a regular basis, coupled with poor sleep, high levels of stress and a low calorie, low-carb diet may all make someone more likely to develop overtraining syndrome.

If you think you might be suffering from the overtraining syndrome, the best and most important recovery tool is to manage your training. Take a break from challenging exercise and let your body heal and repair itself. Light activities, such as walking or stretching are fine, but anything that overloads your body should be stopped immediately, or else you may only prolong the time it takes to recover. Make sure you’re eating healthily (especially getting enough carbohydrates), and aim for plenty of undisturbed sleep each night. Though this is easier said than done, prioritising sleep and food will help you bounce back.

But for the average person who may find they’re experiencing a bit of extra fatigue from over-exercising, taking a couple of weeks to recover before getting back into your regular routine may be needed. Either way, it’s important to manage symptoms, whether you’ve suffered from overtraining syndrome or not.